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Civil War Diary of Bingham Findley Junkin
100th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry ("Roundheads")

Bingham Findley Junkin enlisted from Mercer County Pennsylvania on February 27, 1864. He was mustered in at North Liberty, Pennsylvania on March 8, 1864 as a private in Captain Samuel Bentley's company, and later Norman J. Maxwell's company E. Regimental commander was Colonel Daniel Leasure.
Friday, March 11, 1864
Took french leave and went into Pittsburgh on the morning train; ran around some to see sights awhile. Called at Mr. Wightmans and took dinner, spent an hour or two there and returned to camp.
Saturday, March 12th
Nothing of worth notice.
Sunday, March 13th
Sabbath heard a short sermon by Chaplain [Robert] Dickson. Got the banner from him and read it and spent the day as much as circumstances would permit in reading my Bible and thinking upon it's many precious promises. The only wonder is that our armies are as successful as they are owing to the great wickedness that prevails.
Monday, March 14th
Was turned over to the regiment which puts us under the control [of] our Regimental and Company Officers
Tuesday, March 16th
Nothing of importance.
Wednesday, March 17th
Went into city to Wightmans, had a bath and dinner.
Thursday, March 18th
Received a letter from home which states that the children were sick, got a pass, started home, took sick on the way, got home on the 18th and remained home until the 22nd.
Tuesday, March 22nd
Started back to camp, stayed at Mr. Wightmans at night.
Wednesday, March 23
Went out to camp, drew three days rations, and started for Annapolis. Got to Johnstown about dark. Saw Harrisburg across the Susquehanna. We ran down the right bank, got to Little York about noon of the 24th, out of Baltimore about five o'clock. Baltimore a nice city.
Friday, March 25th
Got aboard of a transport and had a very pleasant ride down the bay to Annapolis. Marched out about three miles to camp which gave us a good appetite for our hard tack. After supper some of the boys got to dancing and seemed to enjoy themselves right well. I step into a cookhouse and sit down by the stove and endeavored to cast my thoughts on God, ask him to take care of my dear ones at home, keep me and preserve me from evil. Oh, how much grace the Christian soldier needs and how comforting the thought that God reigns everywhere.
Saturday, March 26th
Nothing worthy of note.
Sunday, March 27th
Sabbath - Spent the day pleasantly reading and having God's word. Attended Bible class in Chapel in camp parole near Annapolis at 11 o'colck. Heard Chaplin Dixon at 2 o'clock and a Rev. Moore of the Christian Communion at seven - he's from Massachusetts. Oh, how pleasant when separated from the endearment of home to enjoy such privileges. How good God is to thus provide for the instruction and comfort of his people under every circumstance.
Monday, March 28th
Left the barracks at camp parole and went into tents nearer town. I think I can enjoy life better now being messed off; one can have a better opportunity to read and meditate. This has been a very pleasant day.
Tuesday, March 29th
Slept very comfortably that night. How good is the Lord to all those that put their trust in him. He is never nigh to them that calls upon him.
Wednesday, March 30
A cold, damp day, very unpleasant for camp life. Time passed heavily away but we had no reason to complain. Our lot might have been worse.
Thursday, March 31
Much more pleasant; commence drilling today
Friday, April 1
Very pleasant day, yet a little cool.
Saturday, April 2
It commenced raining last night, was snowing this morning. Snowed and rained alternately all day. Took breakfast, no roll call or drill today. Had to lie, sit, stand in tents just as we fancied or go out and get wet. About three minutes was long enough to be out at one time. Read the White Rover, a tale of the early settlement of New Orleans. Worth reading
Sunday, April 3
Slept very little last night, although it continued to rain. Woke about daylight, took up my Bible and read awhile before I got up. I make it a rule to read a portion of scripture every day, although I cannot have any set time; have to be guided by circumstances in a great measure, but always try if possible to read a chapter just before going to sleep. It would be very hard indeed to endure the separation from those that are dear were it not for the consciousness of being in the line of duty, and that God Rules; and that he doeth all things well. Oh how comforting the thought that we have such a God to go to; and make all our wants known onto him. At 10 o'clock went to church; that is we gathered in a group in the grove nearby; and heard an excellent sermon from Chaplain Dickson. Text, 1st Timothy, 4th chapter, 8th verse. "Godliness is profitable onto all things having the life that now is and that which is to come." Had prayer meeting at six, a very pleasant meeting. Mr. Dixon made some very appropriate and touching remarks. It was good to be there.
Monday, April 4
Nothing worthy of note. commenced raining about five.
Tuesday April 5
Still raining and cold. Got our breakfast, lay down and rested, then sat up awhile, stood up awhile, then sat down and read awhile, then lay awhile, and so on. But we have no reason to complain for we might be in much worse condition. Received a letter from home.
Wednesday, April 6
Rained until daylight this morning, it it now appears as though it would clear off pleasantly. I hope it will. Answered a letter which was received from home on the 5th. This day decided the question of emancipation in the state of Maryland. I hope it will decide in favor of emancipation. Was on dress parade for the first time this evening. The sunset clear and beautiful this evening.
Thursday, April 7
This has been a beautiful spring day. Makes one feel like ploughing and making garden. Had prayer meeting in the evening.
Friday, April 8
Another beautiful day. Dressed up our steed and drilled considerably. Two negro regiments left for some parts, but unknown to me.
Saturday, April 9
Apparance of rain this morning. Drilled some in the manual of arms for the first. About ten o'clock the 3rd Regiment of New Jersey passed, the first I had seen. Rather a nice sight. Just as we had sat down to dinner there was some great cheering by some regiments nearer town. Presently General Burnside [commander of the Ninth Corps by this point in the war] hove into sight. Dinner was suspended for the time being and cheer after cheer rent the air and caps were thrown up by the scores. The boys all seemed glad to see him. He passed through the different encampments and we could hear their cheers as he passed the different regiments. I would say he was about 45 years of age. It is now raining. We will have to remain in our dinner houses or get wet.
Sunday, April 10
Sabbath - it rained about daylight, cleared warm and pleasant. Had a good sermon by Mr. Dickson from Isa. 55 - 7. Had prayer meeting in the evening. We had dress parade at five o'clock, 30 minutes, something I think is entirely out of place, to thus desecrate the Sabbath. It is a practice which is entirely uneccessary and should be discountenanced by all good men. I have and will continue to speak against, for I think it is very wrong to ask God's blessing on our army and then wilfully disobey him is a mockery. Can we expect a blessing?
Monday, April 11
Threatened rain in the morn but cleared off and was pleasant. Nothing of note transpired, I think.
Tuesday, April 12
A beautiful day, clear and warm. Wrote home. Usual drill.
Wednesday, April 13
Lieut. Gen. Grant reviewed the 9th Corps [the 100th PVI was in the Ninth Corps] by regiments. Each regiment gave him three lusty cheers. He was accompanied by General Burnsides [sic] and other field officers. He is a plain man of medium size, a little stoop shouldered. Does not make so fine an appearance as Burnside. Received a letter from Lydia today.
Thursday, April 14
A beautiful day, clear. Nothing transpired of consequence. Wrote A. B. Moore.
Friday, April 15
Another beautifiul day. Spring seems to have set in. Wrote Lydia today.
Saturday, April 16
A wet day - no drill today. Wrote a letter to sister Mary [Mary Jane Junkin MacLean]. Looked very anxiously for a letter from home but was disappointed. Must wait longer. Hope it will come soon.
Sunday, April 17
Sabbath - had preaching at eleven o'clock and prayer meeting at seven. No dress parade today. This is as it should be, there is not the least shadow of excuse for our armies parading on the Sabbath, when lying in camp.
Monday, April 18
Clear but cool, the usual drill. A Negro regiment from Pennsylvania passed our camp.
Wednesday, April 20
Received a letter from home and answered it. Had our first regimental drill.
Thursday, April 21
Received orders to turn over our A tents, prepare to move out at 4 o'clock AM on the 23rd which created quite a stir in camp. Wrote to Mother [Anna Mariah Agnew Junkin (1799-1892)].
Friday, April 22
Made preparation for to march. Expressed my overcoat home. Drew five days rations.
Saturday, April 23
Left Annapolis for Alexandria. Marched 15 miles.
Sunday, April 24
Sabbath - started about 8 o'clock. Marched 16 miles. Stopped about dark. It rained in the night.
Monday, April 25
Started at 6 o'clock and marched 16 miles. Waded a considerable of a stream. Passed through Washington and camped near Alexandria.
Tuesday, April 26
Day in camp all day but under marching orders. Wrote home.
Wednesday, April 27
Left camp and marched to Fairfax courthouse. Distance 15 miles. Very desolate looking country.
Thursday, April 28
Continue our march. Passed through the old Bull Run battleground and also passed ________ Manassas Junction and camped at Bristol station. I was also called out about 11 o'clock to guard an ammunition train.
Friday, April 29
Got permission from the Capt. to go ahead of the Regiment to call at the Bucktails quarters a short distance ahead [Bingham's brother George Q. Junkin was a member of the 13th Pennsylvania Regiment Reserves, also known as the 1st Bucktails Regiment, company D. He was killed in the Battle of Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862. Met with Capt. [David G.] McNaughten and Lieut. [Ribard D.] Hall. Passed where 155 were encamped. Saw some of the boys but did not see Mr. Mateer [The Reverend Joseph Mateer was the Chaplin for the 155th Pennsylvania from November 1863 through November 1864. Bingham must have been acquainted with the Mateer family before the Civil War as he named his first son Clarence Mateer Junkin in 1859].
Saturday, April 30
Marched about five miles and encamped. Other regiments, other troops left for the front as we came, and we are to take their place.
Sunday, May 1
Sabbath - After breakfast got orders to pack up. We moved about 150 rods. Our objective was to support a battery. We collected some of our stuff for our tents. Then the order came to move so we made a move back about 50 rods. Was ordered to put up our tents. We did. Thus the Sabbath was spent in noise and confusion. I want to say the move was unneccesary but maybe it was. We had prayer meeting in the evening. We are now at Bealton station. May probably lay here for months and may lie only a few days. Time can only tell.
Monday, May 2
Nothing of note. Some of the boys were sent out on picket. I was out target shooting.
Tuesday May 3
Lay around camp all day. Got ordered to march. Drew 6 days rations. I have to go on guard duty tonight.
Wednesday, May 4
Marched about nine miles and took dinner and lay at Brandy Station until about four and marched about 13 miles further. Got our coffee and lay down about 12 o'clock. Slept well. God has thus far given me strength to perform the labours required for which I hope I fell truly thankful.

The Battle of the Wilderness - Day 1

Thursday, May 5
Arose, took breakfast, commenced a letter to Mary [Mary Samantha Duff (1829-1921), B.F. Junkin's wife] but had to march. Crossed the Rapidan. Are now lying just across it. Hear some canonading on the front - noon. Our brigade was sent out on picket at night.
Friday, May 6
Did a good deal of marching. Made one reconnaissance through thick wood. Scared the rebs but did not hurt them. Were then marched back to the rear and lay there in the woods till 4 o'clock; then the rebs made a charge on our lines in front of us [manned by General Hancock's II Corps]. The first line withstood the charge a short time and then broke and came rushing back over our breastworks, saying for us to run but we had no notion of that; so we gave them a few rounds and then rushed forward to the front line of our works which our men had deserted and drove the Rebs back clean and clear. Without doubt our brigade saved the day at that point. Through the goodness of God I was spared for which I feel thankful.
Saturday, May 7
Moved a short distance to the right and remained in the woods as a reserve, but there was no attack made on our part of the lines. Slept on our arms again.
Sunday, May 8
Sabbath. Started about three in the morning. Kept moving along steady in the direction of Fredericksburg. _____ in the pine wood. About three o'clock in the afternoon passed through the Chancellorsville battle ground. Had a good sermon in the evening.

The Battle of Spotsyvania - Day I

Monday, May 9
Started about three in the morning. Marched several different directions, I suppose 10 miles in all. Formed line of battle about 2 o'clock. Again slept on our arms but were not disturbed. Had a good sleep which we needed very much.
Tuesday, May 10
Arose at three and had our coffee by daylight. Are still lying in our rifle pits (noon). Were oredered to advance about one hour before sundown. Advanced during the night about one-and-one-half miles and had a breast work thrown up by daybreak.
Wednesday, May 11
Lay in our ditches till about three o'clock. Then retreated across the Ny Branch of the Mattaponi river. Returned to our pits a little after dark and was on guard a part of the night. It rained and we had to sleep on our arms again.
Thursday, May 12
Had coffee and started off for the line of battle. (click for an account of the 126th Ohio's battle on May 12th) Kept up a skirmished fight through the woods during which Joseph was wounded [the Reverend Joseph Buchanan Junkin was Bingham's brother, and also Union Chaplin of the 100 PVI, Company E) and Paree killed. About 2 o'clock we were ordered to make a charge through the woods, but we were soon on a rifle pit and were forced to fall back with heavy loss to out regiment. Company E lost in wounded and killed 22 during the day. Killed: Paree, [Pvt.] Stewart Hunt, [Pvt.] James S. Gill, [Pvt.] Milton C. Campbell, [and] [Pvt.] W, H. Rodgers. Wounded: Sergeant [James D.] McKune, Sgt. John W. Bentley, [Sgt.] George Maxwell, Corp. Samuel Moore, David H. Stevenson, Privates Rounds, Daniel Shaner, ______, ______, James J. Book, John S. Barber, Abraham & Alexander Hannah, William H. Brown, P. Cook, John H. Martin [and] Tomkin. We fell back a short distance and lay on our arms all night. Had our skirmishes and ordered not to sleep for fear of a surprise. Rained on us all day and night.
Friday, May 13
Threw up our entrenchments and again had to put in a sleepless night. Are still holding our position. Have to keep a sharp lookout day and night.
Saturday, May 14
Still laying in the woods in our pits and still sleep on our arms, what little sleep we get, and that is but little.
Sunday, May 15
Sabbath generally quiet along the line except some picket firing. We have been in here five days, raining most of the time, more or less, but notwithstanding the exposure and danger to which we are exposed, "The Lord has been very gracious to me in preserving my health and sparing my life."
Monday, May 16
Nothing of note occured. We still hold our pits and keep out our skirmishers. I did hear that Joseph had died of his wound, but am not certain of the truth of it yet.
Tuesday, May 17
Lay on the watch as usual. Nothing occured along the line worthy of note. Met with Hugh Means in the evening, who informed me that a Mr. Dickson told him that Joseph had died. How true "that in the midst of life we are in death."
Wednesday, May 18
I got permission to go back to the hospital this morning provided all was quiet to learn any particulars I could of Joseph, but our men made an attack on the right early this morning and was continued more or less all day on different parts of the line. Shells flew over us quite briskly at times and we were expecting an attack so I could not leave. Perhaps I may go back tomorrow. Things are quiet now along the line except some firing along the skirmish line.
Thursday, May 19
Started before daylight and changed our position some three miles to the left and made some advance and commenced to throw up rifle pits. Received a letter from sister Mary [Mary E. (Junkin) Poppino] dated April 28 and one for Joseph from Mary and Josephine [Mary Josephine Baker Junkin (1821-1871)], Joseph's wife. Wrote to her of Joseph's death.
Friday, May 20
Still lying in our entrenchments. Had an opportunity of sending a letter out. Wrote to Father and Mother and sister Mary in the morning. In the afternoon I got a pass and went back to the hospitals of our corps. Found them all together but could learn nothing more of Joseph or any of his things. Only learned that Chaplain Jones of the 20th Michigan had charge of the burial of the dead the day Joseph should have been buried. Did not see him as he had gone to Fredericksburg. Got back and ate my supper and was sent out to the front picket line to remain 24 hours.
Saturday, May 21
Was relieved about three o'clock and returned to the line. Received a letter from Lydia and one for Joseph from sister Mary. Took early supper and started on to _____. Marched all night and until about 11 o'clock, and then rested a short time to take breakfast. Then marched on and stopped about 4 o'clock. Had our meeting on the 22nd and rested until the morning of the 23rd. I did justice to the sleeping having been on picket line the night of the 21st and then marched the night of the 22nd.
Monday, May 23
Moved out about 8 A.M. Still bearing toward Richmond but marched on a very crooked road, going during the day to almost every point on the compass. Got within hearing of very heavy cannonading, our musketry firing, it being on the North Anna river, branch of the Paumunkey. Crossed the Polecat river just after dinner. Slept on the hill this side of the North Anna.
Tuesday, May 24
Lay still awhile and then made a short move, remained on North Anna hill until near dark, rained at supper, then waded across the river and lay on the bank till morning. There was heavy cannonading over our heads all day at intervals.
Wednesday, May 25
Were sent out on the front skirmish line. Shot at and was shot at by the Rebs but by the infinite mercy of God my life was spared, altho the bullets frequently came near me, but in God alone is our help to be found.
Thursday, May 26
Received a letter from home and one from Mother. Wrote to sister Mary and to Samantha. Made several moves in the woods. Met with the 10th R.P. Saw Gerome _____ and W. Patton. Recrossed the river about dark and went up to another fording and took our position as a son guard of the 5 ____.
Friday, May 27
Remained in our pits untill 11 o'clock and left in the direction of the White House. Marched until 12 o'clock. Was sent out on picket.
Saturday, May 28
Came in off picket. Got my coffee, lay around awhile and started on the march keeping down the Pamunkey on the left bank some distance from the river. Marched all night and crossed the river at daybreak.
Sunday, May 29
Sabbath - After crossing the river, resting and getting our coffee, we moved forward about two miles. A large portion of the army are lying here. Met Will McClellan while moving in the evening. I visited Cooper's battery - saw Capt. and George McGinnis. We got sleeping all night, the first undisturbed night's rest we have had since the night of the 3rd, and have frequently lost all night. It is trying on men, but all seem to be in good heart.
Monday, May 30
We marched about 5 miles and are about six miles across the Pamunkey and within 12 miles of Richmond and our army is still advancing very slowly. I trust that God will still enable us to advance until the enemy is vanquished and peace be restored to our country. May he guide us.
Tuesday, May 31
We remained in our pits all day. There was considerable skirmishing but no engagement. I paid a short visit to the 155 R V. but did not see Mr. Mateer. He had gone back to the R.V. hospital but I made my acquaintance with Lieut. Allen of Co. H.
Wednesday, June 1
Still in our pits. Wrote to Lydia. Just finishing it as Mr. Mateer and Lieut. Allen came stepping along. I was very glad to see him. In the evening the Rebs made an attack on our left and a heavy ______ line was thrown on our front but they were repulsed. Lieut. Gilfillen of Co. F was killed and Golon of Co. E slightly wounded. I picked up part of a bible that was printed in 1813. It is complete as far as _____.

The Battle of Cold Harbor

Thursday, June 2
Lay in our pits till about three o'clock. We're the rear guard. Had gone but about one-and-one-half miles when we were attacked by the Rebs and a pretty sharp time of it for about two hours when we retired to the rear of another line of battle but not before we had checked the Rebs. Just before we were attacked there was a very heavy rain. Co. E had 7 wounded, F. Brest, Lieu. James Offutt, [Lieut.] William H. Corbin, O. McGee, Benoni McConnel, James A. McCommon, Wilson E. Reed, none thought to be dangerous. Capt. Oliver and Sergeant Oliver of Co. ___ were both wounded, thought not dangerous.
Friday, June 3
Made a short move at 3 o'clock in the morning and threw up rifle pits. There was heavy fighting both on right and left of us but we had no engagement. We were shelled some. One came through our pit right over our Capt.'s shoulder. I was sitting right next to him. It did not burst and therefore did no harm, only covered us pretty well with dirt. The Lord alone can protect and preserve life and may he enable us all to be thankful for his care over us.
Saturday, June 4
We lay in our pits until about 6 o'clock when we moved about one-and-one-half miles toward the front. I received another letter for Joseph from his family. I wrote a few lines and returned three that I had received. Commenced raining in the evening and rained all night.
Sunday, June 5
Continued to rain awhile but quit about 10 o'clock and was a very pleasant day. So far as we were concerned it was quiet as could be expected until 5 o'clock. We moved about 1 mile and threw up pits. Worked until about 12 o'clock. Just after dark the Rebs made a desperate charge on the line of the 5th and 18th Corps but were repulsed, with what loss I have not heard. Was generally quiet the rest of the night. I wrote a letter home.
Monday, June 6
Pleasant day. Washed both my shirts and socks. A few shell and grape came over our regiment and scared some butchers off that were back in the woods a short distance. The beeves were just skinned ready, so our Corps, some 2 or 3 of each company made for the beef, so we got an extra ration of meat. The butchers soon came back but their beeves had taken legs and gone. I took my post on picket at 6 o'clock for a 24 hour term.
Tuesday, June 7
A very pleasant day. Remained on picket till 5 o'clock. Nothing of note transpired on our part of the line. We hear no news from the other parts that is reliable. Can't say what is going on.
Wednesday, June 8
Pleasant day. At 4 o'clock in the evening our bridge was taken out of the front picket line. Were placed in squads. Most of the boys in our company would fall asleep part of the time, but the Capt., orderly Sergeant, and I kept our eyes open all night.
Thursday, June 9
Pleasant day. Remained on picket duty all day and kept watch intil 12 o'clock that night. Then lay down to sleep. I also received a letter from sister Mary. No one I think can appreciate the reception of letters as the soldier can and how it cheers him.
Friday, June 10
Pleasant day. Was relieved of picket about 5 o'clock. Fell back _____ as reserve. Mr. Mateer made a short visit.
Saturfday, June 11
Started to visit the 155th but on the way learned that they had moved. Came back and wrote home and to sister Mary.
Sunday, June 12
A very pleasant day. Had preaching. Spent the day as quietly as could be expected. Had orders to move at 6 o'clock but did not start until about dark. We started and got to the White House about daylight of the 13th, the distance 12 miles.
Monday, June 13
Pleasant day. Remained near the White House until after dinner and then started across the country to the James River. Nothing of particular interest occured. Stopped at 10 P.M.
Tuesday, June 14
Continued the march, crossed the Chickahominy and camped near the James.
Wednesday, June 15
Lay in camp until 10 o'clock, then started. Crossed the James river, marched until 10. Stopped for coffee. Marched on and about sundown took a position in the rear _____ lines near Petersburg. Threw up rifle pits.

Petersburg

Friday, June 17
Advanced and lay in pits till 4 o'clock and the 9th Corps prepared for a charge. Our regiment was to act as skirmishers for our division. We advanced, then fell back when we discovered the enemies position. We were soon ordered again to advance. Again we did - a short distance we were to fall down and the lines of battle to pass over us. Just after they passed I was wounded. The fire of the Rebs was terrible. I figured our men could not drive them, but they did but with heavy loss.
Note: Bingham Findley Junkin suffered a gunshot in the right thigh, shattering the hip bone. He was confined in a field hospital for about two days, then sent to City Point and from there to David's Keland. As soon as he was able to travel, he was sent home on furlough and subsequently to the Gilbert Street Hospital in Philadelphia. He was sent home again to vote in the 1864 Presidential election. On this journey, he caught cold in the wound and was prostrated and confined to his bed and house most of the winter of 1864-65. He once again reported to Gilbert Street Hospital on March 1, 1865. After Lee's surrender, Bingham was sent to rejoin his regiment marching from City Point , 14 miles beyond Petersburg and returned with it to Tennalytown. This marching so irritated his wound that he was again sent to Carver Hospital, Washington, D.C. He was honorably discharged on the 8th of July, 1865.

June 13, 1865
Came to the division hospital for the purpose of getting a discharge if possible.

Rivers crossed: Potomac, Rappahannock, Raidon, Ny, Polecat, Mattaponi, North Anne, Pomonkey, and Chickahominy.
Bingham Findley Junkin died on May 15, 1911, aged 78 years, 5 months, 3 days.

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